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Japanese really has almost nothing extraphonological in its interjections - about the closest you ever get is a final [ʔ] (which arguably isn't a segment at all in this case), and lengthening of consonants that aren't normally valid for lengthening (like [ʉwːa] 'eeh, wow, dang', where /w/ can't be long in real words).

This seems like it's kind of a continuum thing, where a language can have interjections that are 'more word-like' or 'less word-like'. Japanese is closer to the 'more' side - you've got very little extraphonological material in interjections, and some interjections are in fact real words. English would be closer to the 'less' side - there's a fair amount of extraphonological stuff that can happen, and very few (if any? I can't think of any) interjections are actual words. I'd be curious if the two phenomena of words as interjections and extraphonological material in interjections are actually negatively correlated.
On 2017/01/13 7:59:58, stewart fraser <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
vel sim ?

> On Jan 13, 2017, at 6:51 PM, Alex Fink wrote:
>
> Victor Mair recently posted on Language Log an episode of the program
> _Detective Knight Scoop_ exploring what one exclaims when unexpectedly
> splashed with water across Kyūshū.
> http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=30304
>
> It's a watchworthy piece of dialectography by itself. But I'm
> prompted to write by the discussion started by commenter jf: in
> Japanese a large number of such exclamations are in fact meaningful,
> parsable utterances (if not complete sentences), and are no less
> reflexive for it. So where we would say "ouch", the Japanese would
> say _itai_ which is the adjective 'painful', or _atsui_ the adj.
> 'hot', vel sim. as the case may be. Where we might gasp in surprise
> Japanese has
> _bikkuri shita_ startledness do.PFV,
> a full light verb phrase.
>
> It was a familiar phenomenon to me that interjections can take
> advantage of segments, or combinatory possibilities, not in the
> phonology proper. I think this varies by language: for instance
> English has exceptional things like "tsk" (a click, outside its
> spelling pronunciation), "yeah" (unchecked lax vowel). Japanese, as
> far as I can tell, doesn't really have this phenomenon either (does
> final [?] count?)
>
> So now we have two points of variation as to whether interjections
> count as "part of the grammar": one is whether the phonology
> encompasses them, the other is whether they're formed of normal
> lexemes, or use normal morphosyntax, or something like this.
>
> Obquestion: does anyone have in their conlang an interesting behaviour
> of interjections, or some other peripheral class of words, with
> respect to partial integration into the rest of the grammar?
>
> AFMCLs the best I can come up with is Sabasasaj which does the funny
> segments thing: [o:] attention-getter, [AX\] for annoyance, [sa?]
> 'stop!' where [o:, X\, ?] don't belong to any phoneme.
>
> Alex (in whose idiolect "ouch" can mean 'that must have hurt that
> thing!', which vexes Sai no end)