28.05.2017, 21:17, Leo Moser wrote:
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Leo replies:

Victor cites the common consonants from Maddieson’s (1984) survey of 317 languages:

Stop: t, k, p, b, d, g, ʔ

Fricative/affricate: s, h, ʃ, tʃ, f, z, ts, dʒ, x, v

Nasal: n, m, ŋ, ɲ

Approximant: j, l, w, r

This is very close to what I have used for Bahasan, and plan to use in Acadon.


Pandunia has these consonants:

Stop: t, k, p, b, d, g

Fricative/affricate: s, h, ʃ, f, z, ʒ, x, v (tʃ dʒ)

Nasal: n, m, ŋ

Approximant: j, l, w, r



/ʃ/ is written <c> and so /tʃ/ is written <tc>. (Looks like Tceqli changed back to this style too.)
/ʒ/ is written <j> and so /dʒ/ is written <dj>. Mandarin <r> is mapped to <j> in Pandunia, so for example "rén" (person) is borrowed and adapted to "jen" /ʒen/.
<r> is preferably the alveolar trill. Other variants are unavoidable at first.

Pandunia has /x/ and it is written <x>. Besides Greek words like "exo" (echo) it is used in loan words from Arabic and Persian including "xali" (empty), "xarap" (bad, ruined) and "naxun" (fingernail). There is also the word "xan", which appears to be the most widely known loan word for king, i.e. khan.

In some cases I shy away from using /x/. The word for Christ is "mesi" (from messiah) and not "xristos". Technique is "tekni" and not "texni". I'm still hesitating, but I think that it's not wise to put /x/ in consonant clusters.

The phoneme inventory of Pandunia has become big. There are 5 vowels and 19 consonants, so we use 24 letters of the Latin alphabet, every letter except Q! I think along the same lines as what Leo wrote in this part:

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Whether Acadon will have both /h/ and /x/ is still under consideration. In traditional IAL dialog, the answer would be a screaming No!-No!. Eo was  widely blamed for having both, and its ĥ seems moribund.   But I somehow feel the traditional IAL dialogs do not matter much from now on. Forms of Globalish and the impact of a dozen Englishes hangs over us. The number of consonants in all that is staggering, billions of man-hours are being spent on spelling and rare consonants.

--Risto Kupsala