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What a tease for enumerating the inflection slots but only naming what
grammatical categories a couple of them are associated with. Could you
continue with a quick rundown of what all the grammatical categories are
that Taruven distinguishes? I'd also enjoy reading more about the quirky
syntax that you promise for the complemented verbs. Sitting here, waiting
for more.

   -Jyri


2017-09-02 15:04 GMT+02:00 kaleissin <[log in to unmask]>:

> For the benefit of more newish and/or forgetful members I will drone on
> AFMCL. This is part #2 of a series of n parts.
>
> Taruven morphology
> ------------------
>
> Taruven is a very heavily affixing, and mostly suffixing, language.
> Going by Michael Fortesque (1994) definition of polysynthesis it has the
> traits a) noun/adjective incorporation, c) the verb is a minimal clause,
> d) pronominal markers on verbs and nouns, f) numerous morphological
> ‘slots’ and h) non-configurational syntax.
>
> There is very little fusion, so words with all the bells and whistles
> can get quite long. Few of the bells and whistles are obligatory though,
> so words can also be surprisingly short. For instance, verb tense is not
> obligatory.
>
> It's the open word classes that are most plagued with affixes, and there
> are three of these: nouns, verbs, and statives, which combines the
> function of adjectives and many adverbs.
>
> Nouns
> -----
>
> Nouns have the subtypes common nouns, pronouns, demonstratives and
> names. Affix-wise, all but the pronouns can take the entire kit and
> caboodle. Statives can also act as nouns if there is no other noun in a
> noun phrase.
>
> Nouns have three prefix-slots and six suffix-slots. The most unusual
> slots are suffix slots 1 (diminutive/augmentative) and 2 (a closed class
> of adjectives). The most unusual fact about the slots is that number, if
> marked, comes after the mark for case, if marked. Number comes last.
>
> Verbs
> -----
>
> Verbs come in two varieties: vanilla, known as "verbs", and monster
> raving loony, known as "complemented verbs". Most weird things in
> Taruven syntax can be blamed on some specialized and bleached member of
> the latter category. Morphologically, the main difference between
> ordinary and complemented verbs is that the subject takes a different
> case for complemented verbs, and that one of the arguments is a clause,
> not a phrase. Much that is accomplished with subordination in other
> languages are instead handled with complemented verbs in Taruven.
>
> A verb has two prefix slots and eight suffix slots, and can incorporate
> its direct object between suffix slots 1 and 2. Tense, aspect, mood each
> have their own slots, as do valency and evidentiality. The most unusual
> slots are slots 4 and 6, which do the job of adverbs such as
> "surprisingly" (slot 4) and "probably" (slot 6). The final suffix slot
> is tense.
>
> Statives
> --------
>
> There are no real subtypes of statives, and which affixes a stative can
> take depends on its role, depending on whether it acts as a modifier,
> noun or verb. Regardless of function, slot 1 describes how long it takes
> to enter the state, and slot 2 shows degree.
>
> Closed word classes
> -------------------
>
> The frontwords, by lack of a better term, take no affixes and can only
> be at the front of a clause. You start a question with a frontword.
> Hortative and one imperative is handled by frontwords. My favorite is
> probably {uleìneta}/{lenēth}: "it is said". Maybe I'd be happier with
> the class itself if it had a latinate name, suggestions? Are there
> ANADEWs? These were no doubt inspired by some journalist techniques I've
> seen recordings of: They start off saying "Question", and then ask their
> question.
>
> The S-words, which is an even worse term than frontwords, are the
> "jatmey" of Taruven, most of the leftovers. They are clause-level, and
> need not be at the front. Among them: interjections, swear words,
> "always", "never", the end-of-relative-clause marker. Thinking about it,
> I really ought to clean this up. Finding a suitable Taruven word for
> "leftovers" comes first I think.
>
> The words for "and" is the only thing in the dictionary given the word
> class "conjunction". The clause-level one could probably be sorted with
> the S-words, but then what to do with the intra-phrase one? Pff!
>
>
> ----
>
> Fortescue, Michael (1994), “Polysynthetic Morphology”, in: Asher, R. E.
> et al. (chief editor) (1994), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics,
> Oxford: Pergamon Press, pp. 2601-2602.
>
>
> K
>