In Japanese and Turkish, one way to distinguish them is like this. He is a doctor. 彼は医者です。 Kare-ha isha-desu. O, doktordur. He is (a) doctor. He is the doctor: 医者は彼です。 Isha-ha kare-desu. Doktor, odur. (The) doctor is him. On 2017(09M7W03)246, at 13H39M40S, Raymond Brown <[log in to unmask]> wrote: On 02/09/2017 19:38, J S Jones wrote: > On Sat, 2 Sep 2017 10:26:10 -0600, Logan Kearsley wrote: >> English typically relies on definiteness in a predicate nominal: >> "He is a doctor." (Proper Inclusion- he is a member of the >> category of "doctors".) >> "He is the doctor." (Equation- he and the doctor are the same person.) [snip] >> So, do you worry about distinguishing those cases, and if so, how do you do it?