On 03/02/2018 15:42, C. Brickner wrote: > ----- Original Message ----- > From: Raymond Brown > To: [log in to unmask] > Sent: Sat, 03 Feb 2018 09:24:15 -0500 (EST) > Subject: Re: This and That [snip] >> I don't think so. As far as I recall, there is little substrate >> influence (perhaps some Celtic in French) and by the time the >> wasrern part of the Roman Empire collapsed the majority in these >> areas had Vulgar Lstin a their L1, certainly in the Iberian >> peninsula. The different areas were subject to different >> influences from invading and ruling elites (e.g. the Moors in >> Iberia). > > Ray. > > I don't know how extensive the influence of German is on each > Romance language is, Quite a bit in French, particularly from Frankish - not surprising as the Franks gave their name to the country. :) Many of the Germanic borrowings in other Romance languages came via French, e.g. Italian & Spannish _guerra_ <- _guerre_ <- Germanic _werra_ There may have been a few Spanish borrowings from Visigothic, I'm not sure. There are, however, quite a number of Spanish borrowing from Arabic, cf. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_language_influence_on_the_Spanish_language > but I find it interesting that, in all the Romance languages with > which I'm familiar, the names of the compass directions are Germanic > in origin. Charlie Yes, and it appears that once again, French is the conduit. There were Latin terms, but they referred to the position of the sun, e.g. _oriens_ (rising [sun]; east), _meridies_ (midday, south) and _occidens_ (setting [sun], west) and could thus be ambiguous. The north was _septentriō_ (gen. _septentriōnis) = Ursa Major (<- _septem triōnēs_ = seven plow-oxen, i.e. the seven stars of Ursa Major. Terms derived from Latin still exist in all the Romancelangs as alternatives for the compass points. but the more commonly used names came into Old French along with several other nautical borrowings from the sea-faring Norse and Old English, thus: O.E. FRENCH CATALAN SPANISH PORT. ITALIAN RUMANSCH ROMANIAN norð nord nord norte norte nord nord nord east est est este (l)este est ost est suð sud sud sur sul sud sid/süd sud west ouest oest oeste oeste ovest vest vest I suppose at this I should add Britainese. :) nordh /norð/ est sudh /sið/ west Note: orthography still not fixed; [ð] might be written _đ_ or _dh_ (or possibly _ð_ - tho Britainese is a Romance, not a Germanic, lang.). But I think _dh_, which is found in early French, is the most likely. I had even considered _z_ :) Ray.