On 03/02/2018 15:42, C. Brickner wrote:
> ----- Original Message -----  > From: Raymond Brown
> To: [log in to unmask]
> Sent: Sat, 03 Feb 2018 09:24:15 -0500 (EST)
> Subject: Re: This and That

>> I don't think so. As far as I recall, there is little substrate 
>> influence (perhaps some Celtic in French) and by the time the 
>> wasrern part of the Roman Empire collapsed the majority in these 
>> areas had Vulgar Lstin a their L1, certainly in the Iberian 
>> peninsula.   The different areas were subject to different 
>> influences from invading and ruling elites (e.g. the Moors in 
>> Iberia).
> Ray.
> I don't know how extensive the influence of German is on each
> Romance language is,

Quite a bit in French, particularly from Frankish - not surprising as
the Franks gave their name to the country.  :)

Many of the Germanic borrowings in other Romance languages came via
French, e.g. Italian & Spannish _guerra_ <- _guerre_ <- Germanic _werra_

There may have been a few Spanish borrowings from Visigothic, I'm not
sure.  There are, however, quite a number of Spanish borrowing from
Arabic, cf.

> but I find it interesting that, in all the Romance languages with 
> which I'm familiar, the names of the compass directions are Germanic
>  in origin. Charlie

Yes, and it appears that once again, French is the conduit.  There were
Latin terms, but they referred to the position of the sun, e.g. _oriens_
(rising [sun]; east), _meridies_ (midday, south) and _occidens_ (setting
[sun], west) and could thus be ambiguous.  The north was _septentriō_
(gen. _septentriōnis) = Ursa Major (<- _septem triōnēs_ = seven
plow-oxen, i.e. the seven stars of Ursa Major.

Terms derived from Latin still exist in all the Romancelangs as
alternatives for the compass points.  but the more commonly used names
came into Old French along with several other nautical borrowings from
the sea-faring Norse and Old English, thus:

norð   nord    nord    norte   norte    nord    nord      nord
east   est     est     este   (l)este   est     ost       est
suð    sud     sud     sur     sul      sud     sid/süd   sud
west   ouest   oest    oeste   oeste    ovest   vest      vest

I suppose at this I should add Britainese.  :)

nordh /norð/
sudh /sið/

Note: orthography still not fixed; [ð] might be written _đ_ or _dh_ (or
possibly _ð_ - tho Britainese is a Romance, not a Germanic, lang.).  But
I think _dh_, which is found in early French, is the most likely.  I had
even considered _z_    :)