On Mon, 26 Feb 2018 15:25:48 +0000 Raymond Brown <[log in to unmask]> wrote: > Yet Frankish _þwalja_ became _toaille_ in Old French with initial [t]. > Why? Had continental Germanic already begun th-stopping as early as > the 5th/6th centuries AD? No. The Norse runes are a reduced set, using the same characters for voiced and voiceless stops, and the one rune for /u ü o ɔ ö w/, but they kept the rune thorn for /θ/. It still occured in 13th century Sweden. Spelling changes show the loss of /θ/ in Germany. High German had lost it by about 900, Low German gradually between the 11th and 14th centuries.