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There are ten traditionally listed cases in Itlani although two of them
(Prepositional and Vocative) are identical in form:

1. Nominative: subject, citation case (fitó/fitoú [cat/cats])
2. Accusative: direct object (fitoova/fitoovó [cat/cats])
3. Genitive: possessive (fitoa/fitoarun [of a cat/of cats])
4. Paritive: possessive/quantitative (fitoaris/fitoainen [part of a
cat/quantity of cats])
5. Dative: indirect object or direction toward (fitoese/fitoesea [to a
cat/to cats])
6. Ablative: direction from (fitoay/fitoiena [from a cat/from cats])
7.Locative: place in either time or space, governed by prepositions
(hatrini fitoan/hatrini fitoavá [near a cat/near cats])
8. Instrumental: by means of (fitoilu/fitoilisa [by means of a cat/by means
of cats])
9. Prepositional: used with non-local, non-spatial prepositions or adverbs
(kari fitoey/kari fitoín [according to a cat/according to cats])
10. Vocative: case of direct address (Fitoey!/Fitoín! [Cat!/Cats!])

On Thu, Apr 19, 2018 at 9:40 AM, Hugelmann Alexis <[log in to unmask]>
wrote:

> There are 4 morphologically expressed cases in Ɣu:
>
>    1. *Nominative*: default/citation case, for grammatical subjects,
>    vocatives, subject and object complements, and possessive phrases.
>    2. *Patientive*: for a direct object that is modified or is acted upon
>    negatively, and the first object of a verb with the abessive
> applicative;
>    -*m* after vowels, -*e* after consonants.
>    3. *Benefactive*: for a direct object that benefits in some ways from
>    the action of verbs like "ameliorate", "give to" (acting like a
> traditional
>    dative there), etc, and the first object of a verb with the comitative
>    applicative; -*o* after vowels (forming diphthongs), -*ah* after
>    consonants.
>    4. *Locative*: location or destination when used alone, progressive
>    aspect on temporal infinitives, and the case assigned by postpositions;
> -
>    *ke* after vowels, -*ka* after consonants.
>
> Patientive and Benefactive are also used in comparisons: the former after a
> positive comparison, the latter after a negative comparison:
>
>    - *An íotom ki júse*
>       - 1s.be.PRS more-big INDEF.HYP cat-PAT
>       - "I'm bigger than a cat"
>    - *An éitom ki pesékah*
>       - 1s.be.PRS less-big INDEF.HYP elephant-BEN
>       - "I'm less big than an elephant"
>
>
> 2018-04-19 14:58 GMT+02:00 Katerina <[log in to unmask]>:
>
> > not sure whether there already is a thread for this or not - what case
> > systems do your languages use?
> >
> > the one for T'elχ isn't complete yet, but i decided that the meanings of
> > the cases should resemble a combination of the chukchi and itelmen case
> > systems because i am partial to both (for some reason).
> >
> > orientative-dative [to, for]: used for physical movement toward an object
> > or in a particular direction, or to mark the recipient or beneficiary of
> an
> > action
> > determinative [by; at, near, around]: used for the physical location or
> > direction of movement (with an object serving as a landmark), or for an
> > entity or object that serves as an example, model or framework for
> another
> > entity/object
> > causal/narrative [because of, for the purpose of, for the reason that;
> of,
> > about, regarding]: used to mark the cause or goal of an action or the
> > subject of a story (narrative)
> > designative [as, for, instead of; as, like, similar to; for, in order
> to]:
> > used to state a role or purpose or to express the resemblance between one
> > entity or object and another
> > translative [into]: used for an entity or object that is transformed or
> > turned into a different entity/object (as in "the human being was made
> > T'elχ")
> > abessive/privative/caritive [without]: used to state the absence or lack
> of
> > an entity or object
> > ablative [away from]: used for physical movement away from an object or
> in
> > the opposite direction, or for an entity or object that loses or is
> > deprived of something
> > instrumental [using, by means of, with]: used for an instrument or means
> > whereby an action is performed, may mark the agent or the patient (or
> both
> > simultaneously)
> > comitative I [with, together with, along with]: used for joint actions;
> > connotes inseparability, used for inalienable parts of a whole, or
> persons)
> > (circumfix)
> > comitative II [with, together with, along with]: used for joint actions
> or
> > actions that require the presence of a specific object; connotes
> > separability, used for objects and entities not considered "persons")
> > (circumfix)
> > locative [in, within, inside]: used for physical location in the most
> > general sense, has a variety of figurative meanings
> > vocative: used to address a sapient entity directly
> >
> > peace,
> >
> > cathy
> >
>