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I love the distinction between definite and indefinite objects - it's a 
nice subtlety to have in a case system. How do you distinguish between 
indefinite objects and subjects? Are subjects required to be definite?

------ Original Message ------
On  Saturday, 21 Apr, 2018 at 23:49, Dirk 
Elzinga<[log in to unmask]> wrote:

AFMCL ...

My thinking is still evolving on this, but here's what I have so far.

There are three cases in Æppl: accusative, nominative, and genitive. The
accusative case is the case of definite direct objects. The nominative
case is the case of indefinite and generic direct objects as well as
subjects of all types. The genitive case is used with postpositions and 
in
possessive constructions, and forms the basic stem for derivational
processes of compounding and affixation. Many nouns have identical forms
for the accusative and nominative cases; the term direct case is used to
refer to this syncretic form.

Case marking interacts with state. There are two states: absolutive and
relative. A noun in the absolute state ends in an absolutive ending,
consisting of one of the consonants l, r, n, or t. The particular ending
for a given noun cannot be predicted, though there are tendencies:

* If a stem contains an l, the absolutive noun is likely to terminate in
-r, and if the stem contains an r, the absolutive noun is likely to
terminate in -l.
* There is a slight tendency for an absolutive noun whose stem contains 
a
nasal consonant to terminate in -n. This is referred to as nasal
concordance.
* The termination -t on absolutive nouns is uncommon and only appears on
monosyllabic stems ending in a voiceless stop or fricative.

Some examples:

[ˈɔrml̩] 'book.ABS' [ɔrm] 'book.REL'
[ˈfrɑxtl̩] 'domesticated_animal.ABS' [frɑxt] 'domesticated_animal.REL'
[ˈɬɪfr̘] 'skin.ABS' [ɬɪf] 'skin.REL'
[ˈspjɛsr̩] 'horn.ABS' [spjɛs] 'horn.REL'
[ˈstʊbn̩] 'shoe.ABS' [stʊb] 'shoe.REL'
[dwɑrn] 'stone.ABS' [dwɑr] 'stone.REL'
[o:st] 'wall.ABS' [o:s] 'wall.REL'

Nouns in the accusative and nominative cases end in an absolutive 
suffix;
nouns in the genitive case lack the absolutive. This means that the set 
of
nouns in the genitive case are just those nouns in the relative state, 
and
the sets of nouns in the accusative and nominative cases are just those
nouns in the absolute state.

(There are nouns which always end in an absolutive ending as well as 
nouns
which never do; these classes are determined semantically for the most
part. Nouns which always bear an absolutive ending are words for natural
phenomena (rain, wind, sun, etc), landscape (hill, lake, cliff), and
animals that are not domesticated and which are dangerous to man. Nouns
that never bear an absolutive ending are those denoting body parts, kin
terms, or nouns that are defined by being part of a system or whole 
(peak
of a mountain, prow of a ship, etc).)

Nouns which distinguish accusative from nominative forms do so on the
basis of an alternation between long and short vowels or falling and
rising diphthongs. Noun stems which participate in this prosodic
alternation are known as alternating stems. In alternating stems the
accusative case is marked by the open stem, and the nominative (and
genitive) case is marked by the close stem. The open stem contains a 
long
vowel or falling diphthong in the final syllable; the close stem 
contains
a short vowel or rising diphthong in the final syllable. The alternation
between long and short vowels is known as clipping, and the alternation
between falling and rising diphthongs is known as breaking.

Some examples of clipping:

[ˈki:pl̩] 'stick.ACC' [ˈkɪpl̩] 'stick.NOM' [kɪp] 'stick.GEN'
[ˈbe:sr̩] 'fruit.ACC' [ˈbɛsr̩] 'fruit.NOM' [bɛs] 'fruit.GEN'
[ˈstu:bn̩] 'shoe.ACC' [ˈstʊbn̩] 'shoe.NOM' [stʊb] 'shoe.GEN'
[ˈpo:ml̩] 'egg.ACC' [ˈpɔml̩] 'egg.NOM' [pɔm] 'egg.GEN'

And some examples of breaking:

[ˈtiə̯pl̩] 'rope.ACC' [ˈtjɛpl̩] 'rope.NOM' [tjɛp] 'rope.GEN'
[ˈbeə̯mn̩] 'house.ACC' [ˈbjæmn̩] 'house.NOM' [ˈbjæm] 'house.GEN'
[ˈluə̯kr̩] 'snake.ACC' [ˈlwɔkr̩] 'snake.NOM' [ˈlwɔk] 'snake.GEN'
[ˈdoə̯rn] 'stone.ACC' [ˈdwɑrn] 'stone.NOM' [dwɑr] 'stone.GEN'

Dirk