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Jon Patrick <[log in to unmask]> asked on TEI-L (Thu, 14 Sep 1995):
 
>We are encoding a trilingual dictionary that consists of Basque
>headwords and French and Spanish definitions, but not basque
>definitions. In the mark up process we wish to denote the french and
>spanish definitions separately however the TEI standard only has the one
>field <def>. Any suggestions on how we might get around this problem?
>Note that the words "Fr" or "sp" do not appear in the text. The
>lexicographer has assumed that the reader knows the difference. We have
>the same problem with example sentences but which are given in the three
>languages basque, french, spanish.
 
Since then, Jon sent us a few entries of the Basque-Spanish-French
dictionary, about which he says:
 
>The fields are roughly basque, geographical-location,spanish,french..
>The files have scanned in so still contain spelling errors.
 
Here are a few suggestions, together with a few comments on some other
interesting problems we came across while looking throuh the materials.
 
 
1. Translations: in order to indicate the language for a given translation,
the global LANG attribute seems appropriate (note that we use <trans> and
not <def>, but see below):
 
[ Apama] , abuela,  grand'lnere.
 
<entry>
  <form>
    <orth>Apama</orth>
  </form>
  <trans lang=es>
    <tr>abuela</tr>
  </trans>
  <trans lang=fr>
    <tr>grand'lnere</tr>
  </trans>
</entry>
 
 
[ Aphalmentu]  (S), Ahaiamiclllo:  abaisselrzent,  humiliation .
 
<entry>
  <form>
    <orth>Aphalmentu</orth>
  </form>
  <usg type=geo>S</usg>
  <trans lang=es>
    <tr>Ahaiamiclllo</tr>
  </trans>
  <trans lang=fr>
    <tr>abaisselrzent</tr>
    <tr>humiliation</tr>
  </trans>
</entry>
 
 
 
2. Examples: The LANG attribute can also be used here:
 
[ APARATSU]  ( AN - b ), apero, con-junto de instrumentos y herramientos de
un oficio:  attirail, I'ensemble des outils d un mThetatier.  NEKAZALGO
APARATSUAK, los aperos de la branza, les instruments aratoires.  (??)
 
<entry>
  <form>
    <orth>APARATSU</orth>
    <usg type=geo>AN - b</usg>
  </form>
  <sense>
    <def>apero,con-junto de instrumentos y herramientos de un oficio</def>
    <def>attirail,I'ensemble des outils d un mThetatier</def>
    <eg>
      <q>NEKAZALGO APARATSUAK</q>
      <trans lang=es>
        <tr>los aperos de labranza</tr>
      </trans>
      <trans lang=fr>
        <tr>les instruments aratoires</tr>
      </trans>
      <xr>??</xr>
    </eg>
  </sense>
</entry>
 
 
 
3. Usage notes: In the "Aphalmentu" example above, the headword seems to be
restricted to use in a single geographic area. However, in the the example
below, there are different orthographic forms of the word for different
geographical regions. In the first case, we placed the <usg> tag at the
entry level, whereas below the different geographical usage notes are
placed within the <form> tag in order to associate them with the
appropriate orthographic variant.
 
[ Apal-ordu]  (B, G), [ aihal-tenore]  (Sc), hora de cenar,  heure de souper.
 
<entry>
  <form>
    <orth>Apal-ordu</orth>
    <usg type=geo>B</usg>
    <usg type=geo>G</usg>
  </form>
  <form>
    <orth>aihal-tenore</orth>
    <usg type=geo>Sc</usg>
  </form>
  <trans lang=es>
    <tr>hora de cenar</tr>
  </trans>
  <trans lang=fr>
    <tr>heure de souper</tr>
  </trans>
</entry>
 
 
In this example, the usage note applies to different senses of the word,
for which there is only one orthographic form. So, here <usg> is included
within the appropriate <sense> tags:
 
 
[ Apaloste] : 1o (BC), despues de cenar,  apr s souper.--   2o (B), trabajo
r#stico que despues de cenar se hace enltre varios vecinos,  travail
rustique que font apres souper divers voisins rThetaunis.
 
 
<entry>
 
  <form>
    <orth>Apaloste</orth>
  </form>
 
  <sense n='1o'>
    <usg type=geo>BC</usg>
    <trans lang=es>
      <tr>despues de cenar</tr>
    </trans>
    <trans lang=fr>
      <tr>apr s souper</tr>
    </trans>
  </sense>
 
  <sense n='2o'>
    <usg type=geo>B</usg>
    <trans lang=es>
      <tr>trabajo r#stico que despues de cenar se hace enltre varios
          vecinos</tr>
    </trans>
    <trans lang=fr>
      <tr>travail rustique que font apres souper divers voisins
          rThetaunis</tr>
    </trans>
  </sense>
 
</entry>
 
 
4. Translation or definition?
 
Some of the examples that Jon sent, such as the "Apaloste" example above,
do not give a simple translation, but instead provide an explanation of the
meaning of the headword. This is a common situation in bi-lingual and
multi-lingual dictionaries, when there is no exact translation equivalent.
Occasionally, these dictionaries provide both a translation and a lengthier
explanation (see section 12.3.3.2 in P3, page 344 in the printed version).
 
This problem was discussed at aome length in the dictionary working group,
because the line where translation stops and definition begins is not at
all clear. Our solution was to allow two tags in side <trans>: a <tr> tag
for translations, and the <def> tag for definitions. It is up to the
encoder to decide where the distinction lies. If the lengthy explanations
in the "Apaloste" example are regarded as definitions, the encoding would
be:
 
<entry>
 
  <form>
    <orth>Apaloste</orth>
  </form>
 
  <sense n='1o'>
    <usg type=geo>BC</usg>
    <trans lang=es>
      <tr>despues de cenar</tr>
    </trans>
    <trans lang=fr>
      <tr>apr s souper</tr>
    </trans>
  </sense>
 
  <sense n='2o'>
    <usg type=geo>B</usg>
    <trans lang=es>
      <def>trabajo r#stico que despues de cenar se hace enltre varios
           vecinos</def>
    </trans>
    <trans lang=fr>
      <def>travail rustique que font apres souper divers voisins
           rThetaunis</def>
    </trans>
  </sense>
 
</entry>
 
 
 
We hope this helps.
 
Nancy Ide and Jean Veronis