Hello Auxlangers, As promised, here are the Universals from the Dobbs Ferry, New York, Conference of 1961. ["Universals of Language" (c) 1963, M.I.T., Lib. of Congress Cat. Card No.: 62-22020] ????How do these relate to conlangs and auxlangs? Maybe you would like to check out your favourite auxlang against this list, to see that it is not contrary to the list, i.e. has no features outside Greenberg's findings.!!!! Joseph H. Greenberg based his provisional list on thirty natlangs, which he found to vary significantly on three main paramaters. a. Whether there were prepositions (Pr) or postpositions (Po). b. Relative order of subject, verb and object in declarative sentences with nominal subject and object:- [Note: O-S order was absent or extremely rare.] I. VSO II. SVO III. SOV [Types I and III he considered to be polarised situations.] c. Dominant order with adjectives preceding nouns (A) or with nouns preceding adjectives (N). Compiling the distribution of these parameters into a compact table Greenberg showed the distribution of his thirty natlangs, and distinct non-associations appeared immediately:- Table 1. I II III Po-A - 1 6 Po-N - 2 5 Pr-A - 4 - [ e.g. English with SVO, prep, & adj first.] Pr-N 6 6 - [Greenberg considered Po-A and Pr-N as the 'extreme' types] Appendix III - Universals Restated 1. In declarative sentences with nominal subject and object, the dominant order is almost always one in which the subject precedes the object. 2. In languages with prepositions, the genetive almost always follows the governing noun, while in languages with post positions it almost always precedes. 3. Languages with dominant VSO order are always prepositional. 4. With overwhelmingly greater than chance frequency, languages with normal SOV order are postpositional. 5. If a language has dominant SOV order and the genetive follows the governing noun, thenthe adjective likewise follows the noun. 6. All languages with dominant VSO order have SVO as an alternative or as the only alternative basic order. 7. If in a language with domonant SOV order there is no alternative basic order, or only OSV as the alternative, then all adverbial modifiers of the verb likewise precede the verb. (This is the "rigid" subtype of III.) 8. When a yes-no question is differentiated from the corresponding assertion by an intonational pattern, the distinctive intonational feature of each of these patterns is reckoned from the end of the sentencerather than the beginning. 9. With more than chance frequency, when question particles or affixes are specified in positionby reference to the sentence as a whole, if initial, such elements are found in prepositional languages and, if final, in postpositional. 10. Question particles or affixes, specified in position by reference to a particular word in the sentence, almost always follows that word. Such particles do not occur in languages with dominant order VSO. 11. Inversion of statement order so that the verb precedes subject occurs only in languages where the question word or phrase is normally initial. This same inversion occurs in yes-no questions only if it occurs in interrogative word questions. 12. If a language has dominant order VSO in declarative sentences, it always puts interrogative words or phrases forst in interrogative word questions; if it has dominant order SOV in declarative sentences, there is never such an invariant rule. 13. If the nominal object always precedes the verb, then verb forms subordinate to the main verb also precede it. 14. In conditional statements, the conditional clause precedes the conclusion as the normal order in all languages. 15. In expressions of volition and purpose, a subordinate verbal form always follows the main verb as the normal order except in those languages in which the nominal object always precedes the verb. 16. In languages with dominant order VSO, an inflected auxiliary always precedes the main verb. In languages with dominant order SOV, an inflected auxiliary always follows the main verb. 17. With overwhelmingly more than chance frequency, languages with dominant order VSO have the adjective after the noun. 18. When the descriptive adjective precedes the noun, the demonstrative and the numeral, with overwhelmingly more than chance frequency,does likewise. 19. When the general rule is that the descriptive adjective follows, there may be a minority of adjectives that usually precede, but when the general rule is that the descriptive adjective adjectives precede, there are no exceptions. 20. When all ornone of the items - demonstrative, numeral, and descriptive adjective - precede the noun, they are always found in that order. If they follow, the order is either the same or its exact opposite. 21. If some or all adverbs follow the adjective they modify, then the language is one in whichthe qualifying adjective follows the noun and the verb precedes its nominal object as the dominant order. 22. If in comparisons of superiority the only order or one of the alternatives orders is standard-marker-adjective, then the language is postpositional. With overwhelmingly more than chance frequency, if the only order is adjective-marker-standard, the language is prepositional. 23. If in apposition, the proper noun usually precedes the common noun, then the language is one in which the governing noun precedes its dependent genetive. With much better than chance frequency, if the common noun usually precedes the proper noun, the dependent genetive precedes its governing noun. 24. If the relative expression precedes the noun either as the only construction or as an alternative construction either the language is post positional or the adjective precedes the noun, or both. 25. If the pronominal object follows the verb, so does the nominal object. 26. If a language has discontinuous affixes, it always has either prefixing or suffixing, or both. 27. If a language is exclusively suffixing, it is postpositional; if it is exclusively prefixing, it is prepositional. 28. If both the derivation and the inflection follow the root, or they both precede the root, the derivation is always between the root and the inflection. 29. If a language has inflection, it always has derivation. 30. If the verb has categories of person-number or if it has categories of gender, it always has tense mode categories. 31. If either the the subject or object noun agrees with the verbin gender, then the adjective always agrees with the noun in gender. 32. Whenever the verb agrees with the nominal subject or nominal object in gender, it also agrees in number. 33. When number agreement between the noun and verb is suspended and the rule is based onorder, the case isalways one in which the verb is in the singular. 34. No language has a trial number unless it has a dual. No language has a dual unless it has a plural. 35. There is no language in which the plural does not have some non-zero allomorphs, whereas there are languages in which the singular is expressed only by zero. The dual and the trial are almost never expressed only by zero. 36. If a language has the category of gender, it always has the category of number. 37. A language never has more gender categories in non-singular numbers than in the singular. 38. Where there is a case system, the only case which ever has only zero allomorphsis the one which includes among its meanings that of the subject of the intransitive verb. 39. Where morphemes of both number and case are present and both follow or both precede the noun base, the expression of number almost always comes between the noun base and the expression of case. 40. When the adjective follows the noun, the adjective expresses all the inflectional categories of the noun. In such cases the noun may lackovert expression of one or all of these categories. 41. If in a language the verb follows both the nominal subject and nominal object as the dominant order, the language almost always has a case system. 42. All languages have pronominal categories involving at least three persons and two numbers. 43. If a language has gender categories in the noun, it has gender categories in the pronoun. 44. If a language has gender distinctions in the first person, it always has gender distinctions in the second or third person or in both. 45. If there are any gender distinctions in the plural of the pronoun, there are some gender distinctions in the singular also. --------------------------------------------------- Phew! Robin P.S. Reason for funny date on my mail: I am using a timed out version of Eudora, and keep reviving it by *winding my clock back.* THERE IS _NO_ QUALCOMM REPRESENTATIVE IN AUSTRALIA: I await their answer to my pidgeon post letter asking them to PLEASE let me pay for a registered copy of the current version of Eudora.