Sally Caves wrote: > > On Sun, 15 Nov 1998, Gerald Koenig wrote: > > If I diagram it in Vector Time Tense it comes out as a > > perfective if the time of stopping is known or definite (constant, ke > > or j); and as an imperfect if the time of stopping is unknown > > (variable, zu) and was allowed to slide along the timeline to finish > > at an unknown moment. > In ENGLISH, at any rate, these > two constructions mean entirely different things and would require > differentiation as well, perhaps, in a conlang. I am looking at prepositions and finding that they are "aspected" similarly to verbs. An example given in the General Upper Model (sounds ominous) is: >>> There have been many problems since the war >>> There were many problems after the war >>> ? There were many problems since the war >>> ? There have been many problems after the war >>> >>> The since temporal relationship focuses on the entire interval including the >>> beginning point, it therefore favors the present-in-past tense (``have >>> been'') to express the explicit extension in time of the holding of the >>> process/state; the after temporal relationship does not necessarily extend >>> to the extreme of the interval, simply expressing that some process/state >>> holds at some point within the interval identified. I don't quite understand this yet, but suspect that tense and aspect are lurking everywhere.