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Is this list being held again? I haven't received a message since yesterday
morning...
 
Oh, well. I vaguely remember the question of which languages Zamenhof
(initiator of Esperanto) knew and used being discussed here. I found the
following passage in Boris KOLKER's "Enigmoj de Zamenhof"
(http//www.esperanto.mv.ru/Cetero/Lat3/enigmoj.html), and thought that it
might
be of interest to a few of the members of Auxlang...
 
---
 
- Kiujn lingvojn sciis Ludoviko Zamenhof?
 
- Liaj gepatraj lingvoj estis la rusa kaj la jida. Ekde* la 4-a jaro li=
 lernis
la hebrean, kaj li ekposedis =F8in en tia grado, ke li tradukis (sola!) en
Esperanton la tutan Malnovan Testamenton rekte el la hebrea originalo.**=
 Kiam
li estis 14-jara, lia familio translo=F8i=F8is el Belostoko en Varsovion,=
 kie
Ludoviko uzis anka=FD la polan. En infana=F8o li eklernis la germanan kaj=
 francan
kaj sciis ilin tre bone, precipe la germanan. Poste li eklernis la anglan,
kies
nemultaj morfologiaj formoj donis al li la ideon, ke la artefarita lingvo
devas
havi nur minimuman gramatikon. Li studis profunde la latinan kaj antikvan
grekan. Krome, li lernis iomgrade la italan kaj litovan. La supremenciitaj
lingvoj diversgrade kontribuis al la kreo de Esperanto. Post la publikigo de
Esperanto li konati=F8is kun la hispana kaj eble kelkaj aliaj lingvoj almena=
=FD
kun
tiuj, en kiuj aperis lernolibroj de Esperanto.
 
----
 
*Even knowing the parts, this term may be a little difficult for some. Look=
 on
it as "starting-from" =3D "since". This is one of two common Esperanto terms=
 for
the English "since", by the way, the other being "depost" =3D "from-after".=
 The
first is used to count time from the _beginning_ of a period of interest,=
 the
second from the _end_ of such a period. In the mathematical limit where the
start of counting is marked by an instantaneous act, of course, the two=
 become
identical in meaning. Examples: "Ekde la dua mondmilito, la usona militservo
restas granda kaj preta. Depost la dua mondmilito, ne okazis (almena=FD
oficiale)
alia mondmilito. Ekde/depost kiam fulmo trafis la horlo=F8turon, la horlo=F8=
o ne
funkcias." (Since the second world war, the U.S. military has been large and
ready. Since the second world war there has not been [at least officially]
another world war. Since lightning struck the clock-tower, the clock has not
worked.)
 
**Some may find this sentence a bit misleading. The Old Testament was _not_
translated from Hebrew into Esperanto by a precocious boy Zamenhof -- _very_
precocious: Esperanto hadn't even been invented in 1864! -- but by him=
 between
the ages of 46 and 53 (at least so we gather from the dates of publication=
 of
those parts which _were_ published prior to the appearance of the entire=
 Bible
in Esperanto in the 1920s).
 
---
 
A la Ken CAVINESS, I here give a list of the elements necessary to figure=
 out
this passage, for those who can't read it at sight.
 
Noun/verb/adjective/adverb (inc Esperantized proper names)
 
a=F8'=3Dage -- ali'=3Dother, another -- angl'=3DEnglish -- antikv'=3Dancient
aper'=3Dappear (out of non-appearance) -- art'=3Dart
Belostok'=3DBialistok (small city in Poland) -- bon'=3Dgood -- dev'=3Dmust
divers'=3Ddivers(e), various -- don'=3Dgive -- Esperant'=3DEsperanto --=
 est'=3Dbe
famili'=3Dfamily -- far'=3Ddo, make -- form'=3Dform -- franc'=3DFrench
german'=3DGerman -- grad'=3Ddegree -- gramatik'=3Dgrammar -- grek'=3DGreek
hav'=3Dhave -- hebre'=3DHebrew -- hispan'=3DSpanish -- ide'=3Didea --=
 infan'=3Dchild
ital'=3DItalian -- jar'=3Dyear -- jid'=3DYiddish -- kelk'=3Dfew (more than=
 zero)
kon'=3Dknow (be acquainted with) -- kontribu'=3Dcontribute -- kre'=3Dcreate=
 --
latin'=3DLatin lern'=3Dlearn -- libr'=3Dbook -- lingv'=3Dlanguage --=
 litov'=3DLithuanian
lo=F8'=3Dlive (in a place) -- Ludovik'=3DLudovic, Ludwig, Louis, Lewis...
menci'=3Dmention -- minimum'=3Dminimum -- morfologi'=3Dmorphology -- mult'=
=3Dmuch,
many
nov'=3Dnew -- original'=3Doriginal -- patr'=3Dfather -- pol'=3DPolish --
posed'=3Dpossess
precip'=3Dspecial, above (in rank) -- profund'=3Ddeep, profound --=
 publik'=3Dpublic
rekt'=3Ddirect -- rus'=3DRussian -- sci'=3Dknow -- sol'=3Dalone
stud'=3Dstudy (the action, not the place) -- supr'=3Dtop --=
 Testament'=3DTestament
traduk'=3Dtranslate -- tut'=3Dentire -- uz'=3Duse -- Varsovi'=3DWarszawa=
 (Poland)
 
Particles (inc. pronouns, numerals, correlatives etc.)
 
al=3Dto, toward -- almena=FD=3Dat least -- anka=FD=3Dalso, too -- de=3Dfrom,=
 of
el=3Dout of, out from -- en=3Din (with -n on object, into) -- =F8i=3Dit --=
 ili=3Dthey
iom=3Dsome (indefinite) amount or number -- kaj=3Dand
ke=3Dthat (subjunctive joining two independent clauses) -- kiam=3Dwhen
kie=3Dwhere -- kies=3Dwhose, "de kiu(j)" -- kiu=3Dwhich (person)
krom=3Dbesides, in addition to -- kun=3D(together) with -- la=3Dthe -- li=3D=
he
ne=3Dnot -- nur=3Dmerely, only -- post=3Dafter -- tia=3Dthat kind of
tiu=3Dthat (person) -- trans=3Dacross -- tre=3Dvery
 
Affixes
 
-at-=3Din a state of being done -- -ebl-=3Dable to be done
ek-=3Dindicates momentaneity -- ge-=3Dboth sexes taken together
-ig-=3Dcausing to be -- -i=F8-=3Dcoming to be, becoming
-it-=3Din state of having been done -- mal-=3Dopposite of, antonym of
 
Grammatical endings
 
-a=3Dmark of adjective
-e=3Dmark of (derived) adverb
-i=3Dmark of infinitive (indicates action or state without time reference)
-is=3Dmark of past tense
-j=3Dmark of plural
-n=3Dmark of object (of action or movement)
-o=3Dmark of noun
 
 
-- Don HARLOW
http://www.webcom.com/~donh/
(English version: http://www.webcom.com/~donh/dona.html)