This post is intended as an aid to composition with Vector Time Tense,
VTT.  To use it select the name of the desired English tense and search
for the number or associated Capital-initial pronoun. Opposite the
numbers are the preferred forms. Or consult the SUMMARY below. Other
equivalent forms supplied may be used as a matter of style.  The names
of the tenses translated are:

01 PRESENT TENSE:                         mi talk.
2 IMPERFECT OR PAST TENSE:                vu talked.
3 FUTURE TENSE:                           wo will talk.

4 PRESENT PERFECT TENSE:                  za has talked.
5 PAST PERFECT (PLUPERFECT) TENSE:        ha had talked.
6 FUTURE PERFECT TENSE:                   ni will have talked.

7 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE:              gu is talking.
8 IMPERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE:            su were talking
9 FUTURE PROGRESSIVE TENSE:               zas will be talking.

10 PROGRESSIVE PAST PERFECT TENSE:        gol has been raining.
11 PROGRESSIVE PLUPERFECT TENSE:          zas had been talking.
12 PROGRESSIVE FUTURE TENSE:              zas will have been talking.

13 GONNA IN PRESENT                  has are going to talk.
                                     has are before talking happens.
14 GONNA IN PAST                     ku were going to talk.
                                     ku were before talking happens.
15 GONNA IN FUTURE                   mi will be going to talk.
                                     mi will be before talking happens.
16 DEGONNA IN PRESENT                vu are after having talked.
17 DEGONNA IN PAST                   wo were after having talked.
18 DEGONNA IN FUTURE                 za will be after having talked.
"#" indicates pronoun-tense contractions are possible. See the
full exposition for unlisted forms of tense and contractions..

01 PRESENT:                  I talk.               mi <em> tok.#
2 IMPERFECT OR PAST :        You talked.           vu <pa> tok.#
3 FUTURE:                    He/she will talk.     wo <fu> tok.#

4 PRESENT PERFECT:           She has talked.       za <ko> tok.#
5 PAST PERFECT (PLUPERFECT): He had talked.        ha <ju> tok.#
6 FUTURE PERFECT:            We+ will have talked. ni <la> tok.#

7 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE:       We- are talking.      gu <em> tok.#
8 IMPERFECT PROGRESSIVE:     They were talking     su <am> tok.#
9 FUTURE PROGRESSIVE:      They-f will be talking. zas <um> tok.

10 PROGRESSIVE PAST PERFECT:  It has been raining.      gol <pem> pu.
11 PROGRESSIVE PLUPERFECT:    It had been raining.      gol <pam> pu.
12PROGRESIV FUTURE PERF: They-f will have been talking. zas <pum> tok.

13 GONNA IN PRESENT:   They-m are  going to talk.       has <ev> tok.
                        <ev> is before talking happens.
14 GONNA IN PAST:       They-m/f were going to talk.    ku <av> tok.#
                      <av> is before talking happened.
15 GONNA IN FUTURE:         I will be going to talk.    mi <uv> tok.#
                    <uv> will be before talking will happen.

16 DEGONNA IN PRESENT:     vu are after having talked.  vu <ed> tok.#
17 DEGONNA IN PAST:       wo were after having talked.  wo <ad> tok.#
18 DEGONNA IN FUTURE:  za will be after having talked.  za <ud> tok.#


                I talk.         @===[*]===>

                mi tok.                 Also means "I am talking"
                                        The stem is a default
                                        present tense.

                mi mu me tok.
                                        This is the explicit or
                                        descriptive form which can
                                        always be used when you cannot
                                        remember anything else. Just
                                        describe the position of the mu,
                                        ie, it is a member of the vector
                                        for talk.

               mi te tok                Using present tense marker.
               mit tok.                 Contracted form.

               mi em tok.               Progressive forms which have
01             *mem tok.                the same vector representation.
                                        It is the most common English
                                        present tense usage; "I'm talking."

Because these verbalizations all describe the same vector diagram, they
are semanticly equivalent. I expect them to be chosen as a matter of
style, emphasis, and speech rhythm, and by emphasizing different
aspects, they have a modal connotation. Many of the uses of the English
present tense are covered by modals in VTT, which are explained in the
modal and subjunctive posts.


        You talked.             @=======>  [*]
2       *Vu <pa> tok.           Uses general past tense particle, PA

        Vup tok.                Contracted form.
        Vu mu de zu tok.        Explicit form.

        Vu mu de po tok.        Explicit long form. Mu is DExtro, right
                                of, the end of the event.

        He/she will talk.       [*]   @=====>
3 wo    *Wo <fu> tok.

        Wof tok.                Contracted form.
        Wo mu vo tok.           Explicit descriptive form.

                                                > ">" and "ko" coincide.
Rom-perfect:   She <has talked>,        @=======*
about it,but now she will not.                  ko

4       *Za <ko> tok.           Ko encodes the full expression, mu ga ko.

        Zak tok.                Contraction.
       Za mu ga ko tok.      Descriptive form. GA means equals.
                             Ko is a fixed constant that definitely? ends
                             the action. It substitutes for "has"

Inro-perfect:  She <has talked>         @========*
                 for 5 minutes;                  zu
           that's half her time.

           Za zem tok.       Zem is a contraction of zu and em, it
                             encodes zu em
           Za mu ga zu tok.  Descriptive form.
4          *Zam gaz tok.      Contraction.
Bifurcated-perfect: She <has talked> ..    @=========*

4                 Za mup tok.

                  Za mu ga po tok.  Descriptive.
                  Zam gap tok.      Contracted.

The bifurcated form calques the English form.


Romi-perfect (Is what you think it is: finished, perfected):
rom is a modal. It means that the external  object matches its internal

        He <had talked>for five                           >
        minutes before he was gavelled.          @=======[-*]      *
        Ha ju tok ...
5       *Haj tok...
        Ha lu ga ju tok...
        Hal gaj tok.

Inroi-perfect:(is a logical impossibility to be finished and continuing)
inro is a modal for impossible. The i makes it an adjective.

       He <had talked> for five minutes
       before he was given an extension.                   >
                                         @========[-*]      *
       Ha lu ga zu tok ...
5      Ha zam tok.

bifurcated perfect: (po means either variable or  constant)

       He <had talked> for five minutes.         @========[-*]      *
       Ha lu ga po tok..   Descriptive.
5      *Hal gap tok..      Contracted.

       Ha pam tok.

The tense diagrams for this bifurcated tense, the Pluperfect, and the
Progressive Pluperfect (11) are identical. That is, "It had rained for
an hour, so we bought an umbrella" and "It had been raining for an
hour, so we bought an umbrella" mean the same thing, where we assume it
continued to rain in both cases. I have given them identical forms:pam.
Please let me know if you have a different opinion.


                 We <will have talked>for five                     >
        hours by the time we get to Phoenix.      *      @=======[+*]
         *Ni la tok...      [inclusive we]
         Nil tok.                            Contraction.
         Ni nu ga la tok..                   Descriptive.

inro-form:                                                          nu
             We <will have talked>                *      @========[+*]
          for a long time if we keep going.

             Ni nu ga zu tok...             Descriptive
             Nin gaz tok...
              We <will have talked>...            *      @========[+*]
             Ni nu ga po tok...            Descriptive.
6          * Nin gap tok..                 Contracted.
             We <are talking>.        @====*====>
7           *Gu <am> tok.                        po

            We are talking. [exclusive we]
            Gu tok.
            Gu te tok.
            Gu mu me tok.
            They <were talking>.           @======[-*]====>   *
8          *Su am tok.                             lu     po  mu

          They <will be talking>.      *    @=====[+*]====>
9         *Zas um tok.                 mu          nu     po
          Wos nu me tok.

[zas = they m/f]

Rom-perfect: It <has been raining> but stopped.  @======*

         * Gol <kem> pu, newiy gol pa yas. Contraction from ko + em.
           Gol mu ga ko pu...           Descriptive.

Inro-perfect: It <has been raining> and won't stop. @=======*

        *  Gol <zem> pu, et natu gol fu yas. Contraction from zu + em
             [natu= "it is not the case that P."]

Calque Tense: It <has been raining>.  @=======*

10             *Gol <pem> pu.  Contraction of po + em.
              Gol mu ga po pu.   Descriptive.
              Gol mug po pu.

                                                       lu    mu
cut tense:   They (f) <had been talking>      @=======[-*]    *
             until midnight.                           ju/ke

               Zas <jam>  tok. Contraction of am + ju.
              *Zas <kam> tok.  Contraction of am + ke.
               Zas lu ga ju tok.  Descriptive.

stretched tense: They (f) <had been talking>
                  for hours.
                                             @======[-*]      *

             * Zas <zam> tok. Contraction of am + zu.

forked tense: They (f) had been talking.
                                             @=======[-*]     *

11            *Zas <pam> tok. Contraction of am + po.


They-f <will have been talking> an hour by the end of the hearing.

                                *     @========[+*]
Cut Form:                                      la/ke

        Zas um la tok. Descriptive; Zas la um tok also ok.
        Zas lum tok.   Redundant form using future perfect la.
12      Zas <kum> tok. General form, carries the meaning.

Stretched Form: They <will have been talking> for an hour when we arrive.

                                *     @========[+*]
   Zas um zu tok. Descriptive, nu equals zu. Zas nu ga zu tok. ok too.
12   Zas <zum> tok. Preferred form.

Forked Form: They <will have been talking> for a while.
                                *     @========={+*]
                                mu               po

           Zas um po tok.  um means future-mu (nu) is a member (me)
                           of the vector  time-atoms.
                           Po is from POint of the
                           vector. Again, it can be variable and
                           stretch, or constant and cut off the action
                           of the verb. This is the form that mimics
                           English most closely.

12         Zas <pum> tok... Contracted form of um po. English.

                          GONNA TENSE
         Ellos are going to talk.


                             *  @========>
13         Has <ev> tok.

         In the now time-frame, the mu is to the left
         of the vector.

             You-all were going to talk.

                   [-*]      @====>    [*]
                    av                 mu
14    Ku <av> tok.

                    I will be going to talk to you-all.

                      [*]    [+*]   @=====>
                      mu      uv    be

15       Mi <uv> tok iku.  Iku is the ACC pronoun.
         Muv tok ik.  Contracted forms.
       Mi nu vo be tok iku. Be is VA|KA.


     You  are in the aftermath of having loved her.

       @=======>     ed    [*]

16      Vu <ed> gape iza.
        Vad gape iz.      Contracted form.


Person was in the aftermath of having given himself to him.

            @=======>     ad      [*]

17    Wo <ad> sieh deur uha.   Uha is the DAT indirect object pronoun.
      Wad sieh deur uh.      Contracted forms. Sieh identifies the
                             subject and the direct object,
                             which would be iwo. Read it "x-self"
                             Without tense the sentence reads; Person
                             itself gave to him. Sieh may also be put
                             after the verb.

18 After she will have loved, then (she) will rest.

                  love                 rest
      [*]       @=======>   ud     @=========>

Za ud gape se hapcu.

             Se means a time sequenced predicate, after.


Vector tense is not a relex of English or Latin tense, it translates
any language; some constructions are easier than others. I intend to
translate 50+ Spanish tenses, or anyone else could try. I hope speakers
of other languages will translate their tense structures into VTT. It
is best after learning to translate, to start using VTT on its own
without reference to a native language. A rewrite of native VTT is in
the future. Native VTT lends itself to logographic representation.
Other than Stephen and Jack who are authors of competing systems,
no one has commented on VTT. Your comments would be most welcome.


Vector tense describes the position of the "now" or mu on the timeline
relative to event-vectors to express tense.

a variable used to terminate the action of an imperfect tense. An
imperfect tense "does not denote the termination of an action at any
specific time".

JU, KO, LA, KE::-

are the letters  j, k, l, in the NGL alphabet and they denote constants
used to terminate the action of a truly perfect tense; that is, at a
definite time. KO terminates a MU event, JU terminates a LU event, LA
terminates a NU event. These constants are the VTT equivalent of a form
of "have" plus stem-ed/en, named prog. Ke is the tenseless general
constant used to end any predication with, described in the Vtense post
Vector tense #2 under VECTOR ANATOMY.

MU::- A moving time cursor representing the instantaneous now.
LU::- A previous position of the MU on the time-line.
NU::- A future postion of the MU on the time-line.

PO::- the terminus of a vector, which can be ZU (variable) or one of
{JU, KO, LA, KE} (constants).  It is the bivalent terminator used to
represent ambiguous forms of the English perfect tenses. A "perfect"
tense in English need not be over, it can be a continuing action. VTT
does not distinguish between stative and active verbs.

ME::- Asserts that the MU, LU, or NU is a MEmber of the vector
time-atoms; another way of saying that the action is currently taking
place and is progressive. Me is the VTT equivalent of the progressive
tense paradigm of a form of "be" plus stem-ing, named prog.

DE::- Right-of, DExtro, after, the event represented by the vector.
VO::-Left-of, LeVO, before, the event represented by the vector.
GA::- equals.

PA::- Bivalent (constant|variable end) Past tense marker; also, the
TE::- Bivalent (constant|variable end) Present tense marker;
also, the non-instantaneous present time frame which includes a current
vector with the mu inside.

FU::- Bivalent (constant|variable) Future tense marker, also the future.

AV::- Levo, left-of, before, a pAst vector. From pA Vo.
AM::- Member of, within or during a pAst vector. From pA Me.
AD::- Dextro, right -of, after, a pAst vector. From pA De.

EV::- Left of, before, a tE prEsent vector. From tE Vo
EM::- Member of, within or during a tE prEsent vector. From tE Me.
ED::- Dextro, right-of, after, a tE prEsent vector. From tE De

UV::- Left of, before, a fU or fUture vector. From fU Vo.
UM::- Member of, within or during a fU or fUture vector. From fU Me.
UD::- Dextro, right-of, after a fU or fUture vector. From fU De.

The XV forms are used for the future and displaced future
       constructions, "be + going + infinitive"
The XM forms are used for progressives.
The XD forms refer to a time in the aftermath of the associated vector.
Technicly speaking "ed" refers to any time whatsoever after the
present time; by definition here the time is restricted to a vague
region near the current vector, and etc. for the other aftermath
forms.  Conversely, the XV (gonna) forms refer to a time near the
inception of the vector they tense. They are a very broad "about to".

Gerald Koenig
Advocate for NGL. Written in the hope that VTT may make NGL
a better language.