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Here's some more on the history of Interlingua, taken from Ric Berger's
document 202, included in his Currero International of Sept-Oct. 1959.
 
He cites Dr. Forest Cleveland's (physicist who published a scientific
journal in Interlingua, Spectroscopia Molecular) account of how the
germ of the idea that grew to become Interlingua began with an encounter
of the chemist Dr. Frederick Gardner Cottrell at an evening get-together
in 1902 in the home of his professor Dr. Ostwald in Leipzig. There he
first heard about Esperanto.  Both professor Ostwald (who later became
an Idoist) and Dr. Cottrell (one of the founders of Research Corporation)
stimulated interest in Esperanto in the United States.  He also interested
Alice Vanderbilt Morris and her husband Dave Hennen Morris in Esperanto and
the international auxiliary language idea.  Those two in turn were
principal organizers in founding the International Auxiliary Language
Association in 1924.
 
Ric Berger recounts later on how when Occidentalists were informed that
IALA had entrusted the post of director of research to Professor
Collinson of Liverpool, Edgar De Wahl protested vehemently, denouncing the
partiality toward Esperanto of Prof. Collinson and also of Mrs. Morris.
Tensions increased as in 1937 [1939?] when Collinson's assistant, Stillman,
took over the research program. (Stillman was also an Esperantist).  But
Stillman's sympathy toward naturality gave back trust in the scientific
impartiality of IALA.
 
Berger says that the exchange of letters, of which he possessed copies,
shows that de Wahl suspected Mrs. Morris of playing a charade (Berger
says "comedia", but that doesn't seem quite what he wishes to say) while
wishing finally to favor Esperanto after having duped the scientists.
But this was an exaggerated fear, as he Berger realized when he met
Mrs. Morris in Bruxelles in 1935, when her husband was the U.S. Ambassador
there. He himself (Berger) was a bit apprehensive at the start of the
meeting, because Cosmoglotta (Occidental's official journal) had just
published severe doubts about the impartiality of IALA.  However, Mrs.
Morris received Berger with great joy, and invited him to speak in
Occidental, while she spoke in Esperanto.  The discussion was cordial,
and soon Mrs. Morris called to her husband, the Ambassador, saying to
him, "Come assist at an extraordinary thing, a languge which one
understands immediately without study!  "And I had to begin all over,"
says Berger, "to speak to make the demonstration."  It was a discovery
for Mrs. [Morris], he says, even if she had heard Mr. de Wahl at previous
conferences. It is true, Berger notes, that de Wahl was not a speaker
and did not know how to make use of the qualities of his language.
 
Berger then says that when he described the good dispositions of Mrs.
Morris toward the naturality to de Wahl, he refused to believe Berger,
and declared that Berger had let himself be seduced by a too charming
person.
 
Then the linguistic research is set up in 1937 in Liverpool under
professor Collinson and his assistant E. C. Stillman. But in 1939 the
research project is moved to New York under Stillman, just in time to
miss the heavy bombing of Liverpool.  Stillman had to assemble a new
research team.
 
Stillman, an energetic man, wanted above all to safeguard the authority
and impartiality of his team laboring to an international auxiliary
language. Gode, who had been at intervals involved in some of this
work since 1935, was hired completely at IALA.  Berger cites Gode on
the research team assembled under Stillman:  "Stillman surrounded himself
with young philologists devoid of any interlinguistic interests and
never admitted to the research staff of IALA any person who knew
Esperanto or Ido or Occidental, or any other system of auxliary
language. He wanted researches and not speculations."
 
In 1942 Stillman was mobilized by the State Department as a translator
in the Allied Armies in Algeria.  Dr. Gode was nominated as the
director of research in his place until 1945.  During these six years
from 1939 to 1945 an enormous amount of work was done on the
selection of words taken from the natural languages.
 
Berger then cites examples of the three variantes of Interlingua
given in the General Report of 1945, which reported on this work to
that date.  I've already given that, so I'll skip it.
 
Now we get to the interesting part.
 
Professor Martinet at IALA
 
After the end of the war, a French linguist, Andre' Martinet, having
expressed the desire to collaborate with IALA, was, after a visit from
Dr. Gode, invited in 1946 to come work in the committee of research.
Dr. Gode accepted letting the post of Director go to Martinet and
while he became the Assistant Director. [He may have had a full time
position at Y. T. Crowell as Editor of Reference Books].  Berger says
this may have been a mistake, seeing the surprizing skepticism of
Martinet about an international language shown by him in a much later
review of the Interlingua English Dictionary in Word in 1952.  When
one doesn't have the faith in an enterprise, one doesn't accept
directing it!  Berger speculates assertively "In reality M. Martinet
was attracted to the USA by the prospects of finding a post in
America, and already in the following year he was named to a position
at Columbia University half-time.  This situation went on for a year
during which the relations of M. Martinet with his colleagues led, one
supposes, to discontent.
 
Berger then argues that Martinet was committed to Occidental as early
as 1937, when he was introduced to the language by a French Occidentalist,
M. Poujet, who wrote to Occidental Central that "Prof. Andre Martinet
10, Rue Marie Stuart, Reims, will be in Paris from the 25th to the 31st
of July where he will participate at the IInd International Congress
of Psychology. He would be happy to meet there coidealist Berger and
help him in the defense of Occidental in the International Congress of
Primary Teachers and Popular Education.  The adhesion of Prof. Martinet
is certainly an important victory for Occidental." Signed: Poujet.
 
Already in the sessions of the Committee for Agreement of IALA, which
took place in The Hague from 19 to 22 March, Mr. Martinet participated
at the discussions not as a representative of Occidental (this role
was filled by Mr. Littlewood) but as a neutral linguist.
 
"During the war Mr. Martinet didn't have any more relations with IALA
until 1945.  The 15th of September that year he participated at an
Occidentalist meeting with M. L. M. de Guesnet (leading French
Occidentalist) who the following day wrote me (Berger) (in Occidental),
"Professor Andre' Martinet es now a professor in the School of High
Studies (Sorbonne, Paris). He is a young man, about 35/38 years, very
aggreable and affabile and very interesting. He knows Occidental from
Poujet and is, in fact, a convinced Occidentalist, although he does not
want to reveal himself to IALA, think that it is more useful to
indicate directions favorable to Occidental than to show himself a
partisan."  And at the end of letter, "... In sum, we find in Prof.
Martinet a most precious ally que is in fact, a convinced Occidentalist,
and he will be able to give us much information."
 
"In fact," Berger goes on, "thanks to M. Martinet, M. de Guesnet was from
1946 to 1948, continually kept current with the labors of IALA, e through
him, also Sr. Matejka, Lagnel, and I (Berger), but we would have to say
nothing to not put M. Martinet in a delicate situation.
 
Arriving in New York in 1946 M. Martinet found a team of philologists,
working for many years under the direction of Dr. Gode, and who possessed
already the very difficult research routine.  Although an eminent linguist,
Martinet was new in this interlinguistic work.  But here I let M. Martinet
speak for himself, who had written me this in French the 4 june 1957,
the following facts:
 
"Permit me to have you recall or to make precise certain points about the
internal history of IALA.  In July 1946, at my arrival at New York,
A. Gode is at the head of a half dozen professional romance linguists;
it was not a question, in this circle, of making a language; everyone
defends it; that which one does is extract the international vocabulary
according to certain rules put forth by Gode and seek to clarify an
etymological prototype. In a neighboring room, Hugh Blair, who answers
to no one but Mrs. Morris, consciously and conscientiously practices his
skill as an interlinguist.  Mrs. Morris schematizes completely.  Blair
envisages a synthesis of the natural and the schematic. My arrival
didn't change a thing in the activity of the Gode group and my relations
were essentially established with Mrs. Morris and Blair.  However, Mrs.
Morris tried to get accepted the principle of my nomination as the
Director of the group, Gode becoming sub-director and the vocabulary
derived by his group being recognized as the basis of departure obligatory
for the establishment of all variants of the language of IALA."
 
For his side, Sr. Gode, to whom I had asked, three months earlier, for
explanations of this same point, wrote me this simple phrase:  "It is a
historic fact that I learned much from Stillman and nothing from Martinet
(which does not influence my personal friendship for either one or the
other)."
 
"The scientific method by which INterlingua was elaborated, was described
by M. de Guesnet himself, in an necrologic article about Mrs. Morris,
in Cosmoglotta, September 1950, using the information given to him by
Martinet".
 
"'The labors of IALA postulated enormous expenses. Our readers will know
that an office of three rooms and 11 officiators was necessary for the
linguistic research and practically all the sums were donated by Mrs.
Morris'"
 
"While M. Martinet was at IALA, I was editor of Cosmoglotta, partically
the only review at this time consecrated to the naturality.  Several times
M. Martinet sent me justifications for the forms used in the diverse
variants of the language of IALA.  Very interesting justifications,
which contrast with the negative attitude now of M. Martinet. We intend
to draw from these letters and in those sent to other Occidentalists,
to see clearly how the words were selected for Interlingua; for the
other promoters of this language were very discrete.
 
The Surveys of 1946 and 1947
 
"In these two years IALA organized surveys to know the preferences of the
public.  Four variants were proposed:
 
P. International etymologic prototype   Ex. calore proponite hodie pote nos son
M. Same prototype modernized                calor  proponit  hoy   pote somos
C. prototyp. regular, minimum regularization calor proposit  hoi   pote somos
K. schematicism entirely                    kaloro propozate hoi   pova nu esta
 
[Berger described a few more features, which I'll pass over for now].
 
"In 1957, M. Martinet wrote me 'Of the four variants of IALA in 1947,
P. represented the form liked by Sr. Gode, K. that of Mrs. Morris,
while I preferred an intermediary solution between the variantes of C and
M.' [Berger then argues that while this is what he preferred, he observes
that the differences between what he preferred and what Interlingua is
now is minsicule].
 
"The results of these surveys were delivered to the public by M. Martinet
himself in the Congress of Linguists in Paris, le 13 July in a meeting
dedicated to the international language, under the chair of Sr. Debrunnar
of Berne.  A review of this meeting, edited by M. de Guesnet, was published
in Cosmoglotta October 1948. Rather than cite from the review, we prefer
to cite this from an intimate meeting which took place in the home of
M. de Guesnet June 8, 1948, at which the following participated, Martinet,
de GTuesnet, Papillon and Aguire'.  The minutes 'strictly confidential'
were edited by Aguire (now dead) and 'approved' by de Guesnet and Pappilon.
It was sent only to a dozen of the adepts of Occidental and until today
remained unpublished.  M. Martinet informed the assistants, in French:
 
"The survey is practically over. In every country consulted, the variant
K is in the cue, very much behind C. The Anglo-saxons have voted in a
majority for P.  The Rench for M, but with a tendency very clear for C,
after reading the presentation on the variants'.  The countries non Latin
have shown themselves more latinists. Of all the countries surveyed, it is
the Czechoslovakians who have given the largest percentage of responses.
(about 20%).  France and England are all both responsible for 10%. A
good percentage has been obtained from Denmark. As for Chili, it has not
given 5% of the responses. In every case, what this shows is the the
complete schematization (variant K) is not at all favored by the public.
That is a point acquired. The definitive solution of IALA will apparently
be a horse between M and C.  We must note the victory of the naturality
school, with tendency to written forms more or les archaic (ph, th,
y,), etc.  The conjugation is no longer a question. ... For the
derivation, one hesitates still between the employment of just the
supinal forms: ELECTER, ELECTIBIL, our some double forms, ELIGER,
ELECTION, to have ELIGIBIL, and not at all to have a form non
international ELECTIBIL.... No letters accented e' or `a."
 
More later.....
 
Stan Mulaik