On Mon, 15 Nov 1999, Raymond Brown wrote: >Welsh has many examples of both i-umlaut & a-umlaut; Old Norse has example= s >of i-umlaut & u-umlaut (Does it also have a-umlaut? I wasn't aware of it) >- i.e. vowels modified by anticpating a final -a or -u which was >subsequently lost. It does: horn from Germanic *hurna-; verr (man) from IE *viro- (this IE o becomes a in Germanic if I remember right, the a mutates the i); nidhr (below) is unumlautted, nedhan (from below) is. All exist in English as well: horn, were(wolf), neath and nethen (from neothan). > >But - 'umlaut' is often used also to describe the two dots placed over >modified vowels in German (I've even heard the 'e' in the French 'No=EBl' >called 'e-umlaut'!). In that usage, of course, we have "a-umlaut", >"o-umlaut" & "u-umlaut" in German - but they are _all_ examples of i-umlau= t. I'm glad I learnt them as diereses! > >I'd prefer to called the written forms 'umlauted a', 'umlauted o' etc. - >but I guess purists would object to putting an English suffix onto a Germa= n >word :=3D( I might think they would more wonder "which kind of umlautted a? I or u?" Though here I suppose you're really talking about the a with dieresis? Padraic. >Ray.