Ken Caviness wrote: > If I understand correctly, if an Occidental noun ends in -e, the -e > often is dropped, and likewise the final -i on adjectives which end wit= h > -i. Yes, exactly. Of course it should only be dropped when the meaning is clear. The need for POS marking decreases as reliance on syntax (I just mean word order) increases. Unlike Czech and Latin and Esperanto, with their extremely free word order, Occidental is basically just plain verb-object and preposition-object, following the common pattern of European languages of the past millenium. But since OCC is naturalistic and "open", one can only obtain loose compliance with neat grammatical rules (such as Ido has). In Glosa and Interlingua one can get by with very few grammatical clues such as articles and distinctive endings; my own preference is for more, as in Ido. OCC is only half-"schematic". Example: : Essente de baltic origine e vivente li hiverne in Petersburg : e li estive in Estonia, mi ja de puerin et=E0 hat occasion : parlar quar lingues: russ, german, estonian, e frances The recognizable endings "-nte, -ic, -e, -ia, -in, -t, -ion, -ar, -s" indicate POS in about half of the words, most of the rest being grammatical particles, which *no* IAL marks for POS. This is fairly typical of most natural languages as well. Obviously, it requires more than 5 vowels or 8 parts of speech to analyze any language seriously ... My own idea of an ideal IAL grammar would have all particles (Chinese "empty words") as 2-letter words, and all other lexical items ("full words") as 3 or more letters ... all CV phonology, and categorized by first consonant into meaningful gender classes as in Ro. With -e for nouns, -i for adjectives, -a for verbs. Of course it would go nowhere.