Charles wrote: > = > Ken Caviness wrote: > = > > If I understand correctly, if an Occidental noun ends in -e, the -e > > often is dropped, and likewise the final -i on adjectives which end w= ith > > -i. > = > Yes, exactly. Of course it should only be dropped when the meaning > is clear. The need for POS marking decreases as reliance on syntax > (I just mean word order) increases. Unlike Czech and Latin and > Esperanto, with their extremely free word order, Occidental is > basically just plain verb-object and preposition-object, following > the common pattern of European languages of the past millenium. > = > But since OCC is naturalistic and "open", one can only obtain > loose compliance with neat grammatical rules (such as Ido has). > In Glosa and Interlingua one can get by with very few grammatical > clues such as articles and distinctive endings; my own preference > is for more, as in Ido. OCC is only half-"schematic". Example: > = > : Essente de baltic origine e vivente li hiverne in Petersburg > : e li estive in Estonia, mi ja de puerin et=E0 hat occasion > : parlar quar lingues: russ, german, estonian, e frances > = I would have expected an adjectival ending on essente. In fact this text = does not distinguish parts of speech more than Interlingua does. Look: Essente de origine baltic e vivente le hebernes in Petersburg e in le est= ates in Estonia, ego jam de mi pueritia habeva le occasion parlar quatro lingu= as: russo, germano, estonian e francese. = In my edial language I would have: Ego, essenti baltic de origin e veventi in li inverne in Petersburg e li = estat in Estonia, jam de mi puerini etat havet li occasion parlar quadri lingue= s, russe, germane, estoniane e francese. = (In my ideal language names of languages should be nouns, so no -li angle= si (lingue.) > The recognizable endings "-nte, -ic, -e, -ia, -in, -t, -ion, > -ar, -s" indicate POS in about half of the words, most of the > rest being grammatical particles, which *no* IAL marks for POS. > This is fairly typical of most natural languages as well. > Obviously, it requires more than 5 vowels or 8 parts of speech > to analyze any language seriously ... > A thing that surprizes me is that Occidental has _hiverne_ for _winter_, = but _verne_ for _spring_. I would rather have expected _inverne_ (non-spring)= for Winter. Verne is cognate to the beautiful Latin word _ver_ (as in Primula= Veris), but _ver_ was in old time the hot season and the _invernis_ was t= he cold, as I have understood. Interlingua has _hiberno_ because there is _hibernar_.... = I could be lead to think that if _verne_ is _spring_, what does then _hi-= _ do? Should it not be _*inverne_ and thus _estive_ e _*=EDnestive_ for _autumn= _ and then of course the _*=EDnestive_ as it is a negation? = = On the other hand, the international words that are common are _hibernate= , hibernal, Hibernia, so if it should be anything that would be _hiBerne_ a= nd not _hiVerne_. (If I could decide, that is).